This is the Official Home for Reciprocal System Research on the Web!
Do you have serious doubts about “modern physics”?
Do you question the Big Bang, black holes, worm holes, the nuclear theory of the atom, Quantum Mechanics, neutron stars, quarks?
Do you question the “Standard Model” of particle physics and doubt the existence of the “Higgs Boson”?
You’ve come to the right place! The Reciprocal System replaces all of the above with
a completely unified, rational, general theory of the universe!
Yes, the Reciprocal System is a “Theory of Everything!”
It is a fully integrated axiomatic system: the Postulates are inductively derived from observation and experiment; the theorems are deductively derived from the Postulates.
Therefore, the Reciprocal System supercedes all other theories–
All physical quantities in the Reciprocal System are expressed solely in Space-Time terms! See for yourself!
Dr. Ronald W. Satz
Policy Statement: You could read 100 books on Quantum Mechanics and still not be able to calculate the interatomic distance, specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, thermal expansion, compressibility, and numerous other properties of elements, compounds, and mixtures. But you could with the Reciprocal System of physical theory created by scientist-engineer Dewey B. Larson and presented in his numerous books, including The Structure of the Physical Universe, The Case Against the Nuclear Atom, Beyond Newton, New Light on Space and Time, Quasars and Pulsars, Nothing But Motion, The Neglected Facts of Science, The Universe of Motion, Basic Properties of Matter, and Beyond Space and Time.
The Founder and Chair of the International Society of Unified Science, Dr. Ronald W. Satz, is currently working to computerize all Reciprocal System calculations into one easy-to-use database package. Obviously this project will take many years to complete. This blog will provide an aperiodic progress report for potential users of this software package. Dr. Satz is the author of The Unmysterious Universe–a primer on the Reciprocal System–and 63 papers on the theory (listed here). The book is available from Amazon.com here.
Other purported Reciprocal System Web sites allow amateurs (i.e., non-scientists, non-engineers) to post. Unfortunately these individuals lack the requisite understanding of conventional physics and the Reciprocal System to comment intelligently and thus sow confusion in the minds of many who might be interested in a new, unified, general, and valid theory of the universe. In contrast, this blog is for serious, degreed scientists and engineers only. Comments may be sent to Dr. Satz at email@example.com. If they are of general interest, they may be included in the archived posts.
See Dr. Satz’s Critique of Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time here.
Reciprocal System Database Screen Shots as of May 15, 2013 (please left click on each to zoom in):
News Flash (03/14/2013): Dr. Satz’s new paper, “The Case Against Modern Physics,” is now available. It’s time for college and university professors to replace courses on “Modern Physics” with courses on the Reciprocal System.
News Flash (01/17/2013): Dr. Satz’s new paper, “Space-Time Dimensions and Natural Unit Values of Physical Quantities,” is now available. Mechanical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, and photonic quantites are all covered. Natural units are given, as well the conversions to cgs and SI units. The Reciprocal System is the only physical theory to reduce all physical quantities to space-time dimensions. The proof is in this paper.
News Flash (11/18/2012): Dr. Satz’s new paper, “Theory of Liquids, Vapors, and Gases,” is now available. Specific volume and density, specific heat, enthalpy, and entropy are all calculated using the Reciprocal System of theory. Liquid viscosity and surface tension and thermal conductivity are also calculated. No conventional theory can do any of this; engineers have previously had to resort to empirical regression equations to get answers.
News Flash (07/15/2012): From Dr. Satz–Based on my paper, “Theory of the Capacitor–Third Revision”, I conducted an experiment to see whether energy conservation holds, rather than charge conservation, in the well-known two-capacitor problem. I used a Rigol 1102E oscilloscope, a Fluke 289 digital multimeter (the most accurate DMM available), and the Elenco SC-750R Electronic Snap Circuits. Capacitor one (electrolytic) has a nominal rating of 100 mu-F; the Fluke measured 102 mu-F. Capacitor two (also electrolytic) has a nominal rating of 470 mu-F; the Fluke measured 476 mu-F. The DC voltage source (lithium batteries) has a nominal rating of 4.5 V; the Fluke measured 5.44 V. The Reciprocal System predicted that with these values the voltage of the second capacitor (in parallel), after the switch is closed, would be 4.936 V; conventional theory says that it should be 4.48 V. The experimental result is 4.938 V; the difference being some residual voltage in the second capacitor. Before running the experiment, I shorted out both capacitors, before charging the first, opening the first set of switches, and then closing the second set of switches. I repeated this experiment several times with the same result. Note that it was difficult to get the voltages of the capacitors down to zero before running the experiment, but I managed to get them down to about 1 or 2 mV. Note also that because of capacitor leakage, it was important to set the Fluke to measure the maximum voltage in order to capture the value before leakage. I also measured the connecting resistance and the current to the second capacitor. The resistance was only .25 ohm, and the maximum current was only 3.864 mA. Joule heating loss (i^2 x R) is thus negligible.
Of course, this experiment will need to be replicated by other scientists. If it holds up it will mean that conventional electrical theory is dead wrong. The electrons in ordinary electrical circuits are actually uncharged, and there is therefore no conservation of charge. There has to be energy conservation! And that’s what the Reciprocal System says, and what the experiment has shown.
News Flash (06/19/2012): After numerous experiments with ordinary, electrolytic, and vacuum capacitors, Dr. Satz has concluded that the dimensions of capacitance are s3/t, not s. This means a revision of previous Reciprocal System work is necessary; accordingly, the circuit section of “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets” has been revised and the paper is available for download now.
News Flash (05/06/2012): Dr. Satz’s new paper, “Theory of Atomic Spectra and Ionization Energies,” is now available. Both simple and complex spectra are explained with ease using the Reciprocal System. So is the splitting of spectra in magnetic and electric fields. Ionization energies of the elements are calculated and compared with observation. There are no jumping electrons in the Reciprocal System; Quantum Mechanics has been vanquished.
News Flash (02/01/2012): Both sections of Dr. Satz’s new paper, “Theory of Subatomic and Atomic Masses and Half-Lives,” are now available. Unlike conventional theory, this paper provides purely linear equations to calculate the masses of material subatoms and atoms! Also, a new equation relating average lifetime of a radioactive atom to the decay energy is derived.
News Flash (10/01/2011): Dr. Satz’s new paper, “Theory of Faster Than Light Neutrinos,” is now available–this solves the conunbrum of the recently-reported CERN experiment which shows that neutrinos can move faster than light. Only the Reciprocal System is capable of providing the solution! Update: Another experiment has shown no such effect–however, again the Reciprocal System provides the answer–in the retest, material neutrinos, rather than cosmic neutrinos, were used, and these cannot go faster than c in the material sector.
News Flash (09/11/2011): All seven sections of Dr. Satz’s latest paper, “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets, including Calculation of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities” are now available for free download! Once conventional electrical theory falls, the nuclear theory of the atom falls, which then causes Quantum Mechanics to fall and brings down quark theory and neutron star theory, etc. See for yourself! Note 1: The sixth section of the paper contains a Supplement providing a new explanation of the Stern-Gerlach Experiment! Note 2: The seventh section of the paper fully explains ferromagnetism–something that Quantum Mechanics has never done.
Free mini-course on the Reciprocal System–this is the alternative physics you’ve been hoping for. Download these free papers:
Critique of Conventional Theories
Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets, including Calculation of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities, Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (original publishing date here: 03/23/2011, last updated: 06/19/2012) (298 pages, 150 equations, 42 figures, 8 tables, 71 references)
Theory of Thermoelectricity, Thermomagnetism, and Thermal Resistivity (original publishing date here: 02/21/2010, last updated: 02/03/2013) (83 pages, 76 equations, 6 figures, 4 tables, 22 references)
Calculation of the Gravitational Limits and the Hubble Constant for the Local Group (original publishing date here: 05/28/2008, last updated: 02/01/2012) (28 pages, 32 equations, 8 figures, 6 references)
Seminars / Lectures / Colloquia: For a negotiated fee with Transpower Corporation, Dr. Satz is available to give seminars or lectures, in person, or via Skype, on the Reciprocal System of theory at your university or company. You can see the quality of the work in the above free papers. A seminar or lecture will give you a great opportunity to ask all the questions you ever wanted to ask on theoretical physics! And, if you’re a college or university professor, Dr. Satz can help you design a course on the Reciprocal System! firstname.lastname@example.org
Revision History / Notes:
04/04/2013: update of 07/04/2012–rather than just one, two “Higgs bosons” have been discovered, with masses given as 123.5 GeV = 132.583 u and 126.6 GeV = 135.911 u. These particles are therefore most likely Cs- 133 and Cs-136. Cs-133 is stable in our environment, Cs-136 is not. In Reciprocal System terminology, Cs-133 has 23 isotopic charges and Cs-136 has 26 isotopic charges. Prediction: because there are many isotopes of Cs, there could be many more supposed “Higgs bosons” to be “found.”
03/14/2013: completed and uploaded first draft of “The Case Against Modern Physics”
01/17/2013: completed and uploaded first draft of “Space-Time Dimensions and Natural Unit Values of Physical Quantities”
11/18/2012: completed and uploaded first draft of “Theory of Liquids, Vapors, and Gases”
08/22/2012: took a break from physics and compiled/annotated/uploaded an outline of Larson’s economic work
07/23/2012: completed over 100 runs of the two capacitor experiment, with the Rigol 1102E oscilloscope on the second capacitor and the Fluke 289 digital multimeter on the first capacitor, and also vice versa, and also using capacitors of different capacitances and with capacitor two having lower capacitance than the first, and vice versa; in all cases, the conventional theory value for the voltage of capacitor two is considerably too low, whereas the Reciprocal System value is considerably nearer the measured value. Note: it’s necessary to measure the maximum voltage and set the Rigol for peak detection, particulary for the case where capacitor two has higher capacitance than capacitor one. This experiment proves energy conservation (as would be expected!) and disproves the conventional theory that “charge conservation” is applicable here.
07/14/2012: uploaded jpg of the database screen for spectra and ionization energies calculations; the calculation of the possible set of time region spectral quantum numbers (n1 and n2) and time-space region spectral quantum numbers (m1 and m2) works very well!
07/04/2012: 125 GeV = 124.25 amu, and so all that CERN did is obtain the energy equivalent of Cs (with 25 isotopic charges); they didn’t discover some new “boson”; and please keep in mind: matter can be changed to energy and energy can be changed to matter, but matter does not contain the conversion energy as such, nor does energy contain the conversion mass as such
06/19/2012: finished experiments with capacitors and concluded that the capacitance is s3/t for all types; therefore revised the circuit section in “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets”
06/10/2012: uploaded third revision of “Theory of the Capacitor”–this implements the note on 06/09/2012; before updating the “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagets” we will wait for experimental work with vacuum capacitors
06/09/2012: uploaded “Capacitor Theory Update”–it now seems evident that capacitance actually has the dimensions s3/t, not simply s; the dimensions of permittivity, s2/t, must be included!
05/16/2012: The equations in “Theory of the Capacitor” apply to ordinary capacitors, not to electrolytic capacitors. These latter have conductive electrolytes (ions); the Reciprocal System equations for this type of capacitor are in “Electrolytic Capacitor Equations”–in the Free Papers to Download section above. Update: this has been superceded by the notes on 06/09/2012-06/10/2012
05/06/2012: completed first draft of “Theory of Atomic Spectra and Ionization Energies”
04/28/2012: Xi_b, a newly discovered particle, can be quite clearly identified as c-H2 with four material isotopic charges. Its mass is m = 1862.95/1 + 4 x 931.478 = 5588.862 MeV/c2. It then naturally decays to c-H2 with two material isotopic charges. In the Reciprocal System, each subatom (whether material or cosmic) is a rotating photon; each atom (whether material or cosmic) is a combination of two rotating photons. It is this rotation (when sufficient) which causes gravitation. There are no quarks and no Higgs boson.
02/22/2012: finished data base work on isotopes and uploaded the current data base layouts; will now begin work on the spectra calculations!
02/01/2012: completed first draft of “Theory of Subatomic and Atomic Masses and Half-Lives”
12/11/2011: uploaded section 1 of “Theory of Subatomic and Atomic Masses and Half-Lives”
11/12/2011: uploaded jpg of the database screen for electric and magnetic calculations; all equations and data from the Mathcad/Excel work have been successfully transferred to the Reciprocal System Database (written in Filemaker Developer); this completes the work on the electric and magnetic properties of matter (at least for the time being)
10/31/2011: uploaded second draft of “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets, including Calculation of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities”; corrected various typos.
10/01/2011: uploaded first draft of “Theory of Fast Neutrinos”–this provides the theoretical explanation of faster than light neutrinos observed in the recently-reported CERN experiment
09/22/2011: Members of ISUS are often asked how Einstein’s theories relate to the Reciprocal System. Answer: the Reciprocal System is in agreement with some of Einstein’s concepts and rejects others. Specifically, the Reciprocal System accepts Einstein’s criticism of the “ether”, his criticism of Quantum Mechanics, his famous equation E=mc2, his work on Brownian motion and the photoelectric effect, his Principle of Equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass, and the Lorentz equations (although we place all the variation on time, not both space and time). However, the Reciprocal System rejects the notions that all motion is purely relative, that mass increases with velocity, and that space is curved. This latter concept is as faulty as would be the idea of curved time. The deflection of a photon near a massive body, like the sun, is often used as support for curved space, but Larson has a much better explanation (The Neglected Facts of Science, p. 36):
“The photon has no mass, and therefore no gravitational motion toward a massive aggregate, a star, for instance. But the gravitational motion of the star is distributed scalar motion, and this scalar motion of the star toward the photon (AB) is inherently nothing more than a decrease in the distance between the objects. It can equally well appear in the reference system as a motion of the photon toward the star (BA). On the basis of probability, the total motion is divided between the two alternatives. The total motion of the star toward the photon is distributed among so many mass units that the motion of each is unobservable, but the photon is a single unit, and it is deflected a small, but measurable, amount toward the star.”
09/11/2011: completed first draft of “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets, including Calculation of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities”–this paper is a 303 page Mathcad document (saved as a PDF), with 150 equations, 42 figures, and 8 tables; Quantum Mechanics is now dead. (Oh, and if you’re wondering how the Reciprocal System explains the famous “two-slit experiment,” here’s how: each photon (a linear vibration) goes through one and only one slit. Each slit perturbs each photon passing through so that the photon moves from its original progressing space unit to another progressing space unit–and these are distributed over all vectorial directions. This then causes, of course, the interference of the photons coming from the two slits which is seen on the target screen.)
08/11/2011: uploaded first six sections of “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets, including Calculation of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities”–see above
07/12/2011: uploaded first five sections of “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets, including Calculation of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities”–see above
05/25/2011: Dr. Rainer Huck (Salt Lake City, UT) has agreed, in a telephone conversation with Dr. Satz, to conduct the capacitor experiments as proposed by Dr. Satz. The Reciprocal System says that the energy stored in an ordinary capacitor is directly proportional to the voltage (1/2 x C x V x conv_const), whereas conventional theory says the energy stored is proportional to the square of the voltage (1/2 x C x V^2). Dr. Huck says, “But please be patient–this will take some time….” The conv_const = 4.9412 if C is in farads, V is in volts, and E is in joules.
05/15/2011: uploaded first four sections of “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets, including Calculation of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities”–see above
03/23/2011: uploaded first three sections of “Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets, including Calculation of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities”–see above
01/18/2011: uploaded PDF of Figure 17 of The Unmysterious Universe–the Grand Cycle of the Universe; still working on the calculation of electric and magnetic susceptibilities and studying the atomic and molecular beam experiments; note: conventional physics says that these experiments reveal underlying atomic or molecular electric and magnetic moments, whereas the Reciprocal System says that the fields induce electric and magnetic charges in the atoms or molecules!
01/04/2011: uploaded PDF of seven papers describing the proposal for a crucial experiment
11/13/2010: uploaded metaphysics paper; still studying Von Hippel’s works
08/17/2010: still working on the paper listed below; the works of Van Vleck, Von Hippel, Bhatnagar, Stoner, and Selwood have been very helpful in understanding conventional theory, as well as the experimental data–these authors, from the 1930′s, 1940′s, and 1950′s, are much less dogmatic than more contemporary authors and actually express doubt about the validity of various aspects of Quantum Mechanics!
04/08/2010: start of work on first draft of ”Theory of Dielectrics, Diamagnets, Paramagnets, and Ferromagnets, including Calculation of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities”–this will take many months to complete; in the meantime, ponder this: the conventional time constants for electric circuits include RC and sqr(LC), where R = resistance, C = capacitance, L = inductance–but in the Reciprocal System the correct time constants are RC/V and sqr(LC/V), where V = the appropriate voltage; hence we now have another crucial test! Of course, L/R is OK…
02/21/2010: completion of first draft of “Theory of Thermoelectricity, Thermomagnetism, and Thermal Resistivity”
01/10/2010: completion of third draft of “Theory of Electrical Resistivity”; start of first draft of “Theory of Thermoelectricity, Thermomagnetism, and Thermal Resistivity”
12/20/2009: addition of figure captions and section numbers, correction of resistivity calculation for boron, and elimination of typos in “Theory of Electrical Resistivity”
11/24/2009: publication here of the first comprehensive Reciprocal System treatment of electrical resistivity for metallic and semiconductor elements and compounds and alloys
08/26/2009: derivation of first, accurate, complete equation for electrical resistivity of the 73 known elemental conductors; proceeding to work on insulators and semiconductors; will not add display until all electrical and thermoelectric properties are calculated for elements and compounds and alloys
04/21/2009: addition of mean forces on unit cell faces to compressibility display
02/07/2009: completion of valence calculations of the elements and over 1000 inorganic and organic compounds!
07/28/2008: launch of data base, with displays and calculations for interatomic distance calculation, specific heat, energy/entropy, thermal expansion, and compressibility!
Other Work: Dr. Satz is the author of numerous commercial software packages for scientists, engineers, and managers; visit www.transpowercorp.com for the details. He is also the author of one other book, Theory and Design of the New Rational Combustion Engine, his doctoral dissertation. This work is 459 pages long and has 800 equations, 30 tables, 17 figures, and 28 engineering drawings. It is available from Amazon.com here. Satz’s paper summarizing this book is “The Solution to the Gas Turbine Temperature Problem,” published in Vol. 20, pp. 49-63 of the International Journal of Energy Conversion and Management. You may purchase this paper from Elsevier here. Dr. Satz is also a Professional Registered Parliamentarian.
Membership in ISUS, Inc.: Membership is open to all scientists and engineers and others who agree to the Bylaws (which can be found online) and who do not work on competing theoretical paradigms. To join, please send a declaration of agreement to our Bylaws and your email address to email@example.com. There are currently no dues.
Acknowledgements: This research is funded by Transpower Corporation, a commercial and custom software manufacturing and certified systems engineering company. Please visit www.transpowercorp.com to see all of Transpower Corporation’s products. Unlike our competitors in conventional theoretical physics, we do not run to the government for handouts. The free papers available here may be reprinted elsewhere provided that nothing is changed and full attribution is made. These papers are peer-reviewed, voluntarily, by the world-wide Reciprocal System community; any error found in the logical and mathematical derivations from the Postulates of the Reciprocal System will be corrected as soon as feasible. Dr. Satz is listed in American Men and Women of Science, Marquis Who’s Who in Engineering and Science, Marquis Who’s Who in Finance and Industry, Marquis Who’s Who in America, and Marquis Who’s Who in the World. He is available for consultation in science and engineering at Transpower Corporation’s regular rates. Donations may be made through www.paypal.com to firstname.lastname@example.org; the contributions will go to Transpower Corporation’s overhead expense, not to salaries.
A Tribute to Dewey B. Larson: Great thanks, of course, go to Dewey B. Larson (1898-1990), the originator of the Reciprocal System. Dr. Satz was extremely fortunate to have him as his theoretical physics mentor from 1965 to 1990; to Satz, he was, by far, the most intelligent and most logical of any individual he (Satz) has ever known. Other testimonials here.
Online Version of Dewey B. Larson’s Books–in Scribd Format:
The Case Against the Nuclear Atom here
Beyond Newton here
New Light on Space and Time here
Quasars and Pulsars here
Nothing But Motion here
The Neglected Facts of Science here
The Universe of Motion here
Basic Properties of Matter here
A YouTube Video of Dewey B. Larson explaining the development of the Reciprocal System here
All Rights Reserved.
Ringleaders for the Reciprocal System, from left to right: Robin Sims, Ronald W. Satz, Dewey B. Larson, Rainer F. Huck